protection of the golden-headed lion tamarin and its habitat. Since then, we contributed to the third largest non-governmental organization in Brazil, the Center for Conservation Biology at the Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas (IPÊ) to increase conservation capacity in that country. Named one of Conservation International’s 25 biodiversity hotspots, the Atlantic Forest region of Brazil is home to over 20,000 species of plants and 2,200 species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, including the woolly spider monkey. As a world leader in primate diversity some of the Atlantic Forest’s most iconic species are found nowhere else in the world, including the golden lion tamarin and wooly spider monkey. Threats to the Atlantic Forest include illegal logging and extraction of valuable timber species, land conversion to agriculture, pasture, and forest plantations, and development of urban areas.